How long do pigeons live?

Ever wonder how long those pigeons strutting around your city live? You’ve probably seen the same feathered friends on your block for years, and they don’t seem to age. Well, believe it or not, pigeons are remarkably long-lived for birds their size. The average city pigeon can live up to 15 years, while some reach over 20. Suitable for a bird that started as a domesticated rock dove. Pigeons are well adapted to urban living, with a diet of leftover scraps and a knack for evading predators. So next time you see that familiar pigeon pecking at the ground, know it has seen a lot in its day and will be around for many more of yours.

The Lifespan of Urban Pigeons

Urban pigeons, or rock doves, typically live 3 to 5 years on average. Still, some individuals can survive for up to 15 years or more. A lot depends on their environment and access to food, shelter, and safety from predators.

Pigeons are resourceful birds and have adapted well to city life. They build nests on ledges, under bridges, and any other sheltered areas they can find. Since food is readily available from kind-hearted humans, trash, and leftovers, pigeons can focus on mating and raising their young.

A healthy, well-fed pigeon in an urban area can live 6-8 years. However, some pigeons may live 12-15 years, especially if they have a steady food source and safe roosting spots. The oldest known pigeon was a whopping 32 years old!

There are a few factors that can reduce a pigeon’s lifespan:

  1. Lack of food or shelter: Pigeons need necessities to survive and reproduce. They become vulnerable to illness, injury, and predators.
  2. Disease and injury: Pigeons can suffer from parasites, infections, and wounds that become deadly if left untreated. Things like fishing line entanglement, hawk attacks, and rat bites are daily in cities.
  3. Harsh weather: Extreme heat, cold, snow, and storms threaten pigeons and their young. Many die from dehydration, starvation, or exposure to brutal weather.
  4. Predation: While cities offer protection, pigeons are still preyed upon by hawks, falcons, rats, and cats. Nestlings and eggs are especially vulnerable.

By providing pigeons with food, shelter, veterinary care, and humane deterrents, we can help ensure these charming birds live whole, healthy lives alongside us in our urban jungles. A pigeon’s lifespan can be long and prosperous with our support.

Also Read: Do pigeons carry diseases?

Factors That Affect a Pigeon’s Lifespan

Pigeons are generally hardy birds, but their lifespan can vary depending on several factors.

The average pigeon lives 3–5 years, but some live well into their teens. City pigeons tend to live on the shorter end of that range, while pigeons in captivity can live for 10–15 years with proper care.

Diet and nutrition are essential. Pigeons need a balanced diet of pigeon feed, grains, grit, and fresh, clean water every day. Malnutrition or obesity can take years off a pigeon’s life.

Housing and habitat also matter. Pigeons roost and nest in safe, sheltered areas away from extreme weather, and predators tend to live longer. Overcrowding, lack of sanitation, disease, and parasites can all reduce a pigeon’s lifespan.

Stress and injury pose risks too. Pigeons are social creatures and require interaction, exercise, and mental stimulation. Chronic stress from isolation or confinement can be damaging. And accidents and injuries, especially broken bones or head trauma, threaten a pigeon’s longevity.

Pigeons can live whole, happy lives for many years with ideal conditions, routine care, a healthy diet, shelter, and opportunities to socialize, fly, and exercise freely. But when their basic needs aren’t met, these social, intelligent birds sadly have their lives cut short.

You’ll have many memorable years together by providing your feathered friends with the essentials and protecting them from harm. Their loyalty, charm, and companionship make the effort worthwhile.

How to Help Increase a Pigeon’s Lifespan

How to Help Increase a Pigeon's Lifespan
How to Help Increase a Pigeon’s Lifespan

To help increase a pigeon’s lifespan, there are a few things you can do:

  • Provide a healthy diet. Feed your pigeon a balanced diet of pigeon feed, grains, seeds, grit, and fresh fruits and vegetables. This will give your bird all the nutrients it needs to live a long and healthy life. Always have clean, fresh water available as well.
  • House your pigeon properly. Give your pigeon a spacious loft or cage, especially if it’s an indoor pet. Include multiple perches at different levels, nesting spots, and toys to stimulate your bird. Clean the loft regularly to avoid disease, and change soiled bedding often.
  • Exercise your pigeon daily. Take your pigeon out of its cage or loft and allow it time to stretch its wings and get some exercise. You can also provide opportunities for your pigeon to forage for food, which provides mental stimulation. Your pigeon will maintain a healthy weight through movement and prevent obesity, which can reduce its longevity.
  • Groom and bathe your pigeon. Washing keeps a pigeon’s feathers clean and its skin healthy, and provides an opportunity for your pigeon to preen itself, a natural behavior that reduces stress. Check your pigeon regularly for signs of external parasites like mites or lice, and treat if necessary.
  • Take your pigeon for regular vet checkups. Have a vet experienced with birds examine your pigeon at least once a year. They can check for medical issues and test for diseases to ensure your pigeon remains healthy. Address any issues early on to avoid complications. Vaccinate your pigeon as recommended to increase immunity against preventable diseases.
  • Provide companionship and affection. Spend lots of time with your pigeon daily through interaction, training, and play. Pet, cuddle, and speak to your pigeon gently and lovingly. Strong human-animal bonds have been shown to increase health and longevity in pets. Your affection and care can help keep your feathered friend happy for many years.

The Life Stages of Pigeons: From Egg to Elderly Bird

The Life Stages of Pigeons From Egg to Elderly Bird
The Life Stages of Pigeons: From Egg to Elderly Bird

Pigeons go through several distinct life stages, from egg to elderly bird. As an owner, it’s helpful to understand the different phases your pigeon will experience so you can adequately care for them at each stage.


The average pigeon egg takes about 18 days to hatch. The hen will lay two eggs, usually a couple of days apart, and incubate them until the squabs (baby pigeons) emerge. During this time, provide the hen with nesting materials, a nest box, and extra calcium/grit.


Squabs that have just hatched are blind, without feathers, and utterly reliant on their parents for warmth and food. The squabs will proliferate, maturing into juveniles in 4 to 6 weeks. Ensure the parents have constant access to food and fresh water to nourish the squabs.


Juvenile pigeons have mostly feathered bodies but still have some downy feathers on their heads. Their beaks and feet still need to be fully developed. They are learning to fly short distances and forage for food independently but still rely heavily on their parents. Continue providing extra food for the parents during this stage.


Subadult pigeons have fully feathered bodies and red-colored eyes. They are honing their flying and foraging skills to prepare for independence but may return to their nest or parents for food. Offer multiple roosting spots and platforms at different levels in the enclosure.


Adult pigeons typically have white-colored irises and are fully independent. If kept as pets, adults can live 8-15 years with proper care. Provide a spacious enclosure, nesting areas, multiple food dishes, and freshwater sources. Monitor for common health issues in older birds, like arthritis or egg binding in females.

Your pigeon’s lifespan and quality of life ultimately depend on the care and husbandry you provide at each stage. Your pigeon companion can live a long, healthy, and happy life with the proper diet, housing, and veterinary care.

Also Read: How long do Quaker parrots live?

FAQs: How Long Do Pigeons Live?

Pigeons are social and gregarious birds that tend to live 3-5 years on average in the wild. However, some individuals can live up to 15-20 years with the proper care and conditions. As with any pet, giving your feathered friend the appropriate habitat, nutrition, and veterinary care will help ensure a long, healthy life.


House your pigeon in a spacious cage or aviary, at least 2 feet by 2 feet. Provide multiple perches at different levels so it can move around. Place the cage in a spot that maintains a consistent temperature, away from drafts. Pigeons also require 12-14 hours of daylight, so you may need to supplement with a bird lamp.


Feed pigeons a diet of high-quality pigeon mix, which you can find at most pet stores. Combinations balance grains, seeds, legumes, and pellets to give your bird the proper nutrition. Always have fresh, clean water available for your pigeon as well. As treats, you can offer your pigeon cuttlebone for calcium, cooked eggs, leafy greens, and the occasional fruit like apples or berries.


Pigeons need daily interaction and exercise outside their cage. Take your pigeon out of its cage daily and allow it to perch on your hand, shoulder, or playpen. Gently pet and handle your pigeon to help socialize it, but never force it to be held if it struggles. Pigeons enjoy interacting with bird toys like ropes, ladders, and swings.


Gently groom your pigeon by misting it with lukewarm water or giving it shallow baths 2-3 times a week. Trim your pigeon’s nails if they get too long, and check for any signs of parasites or illness during grooming. Take your pigeon for regular vet checkups, especially if you notice any changes in behavior or droppings.

You can have many long, rewarding years with your feathered companion by providing your pigeon with healthy habitat, nutritious food, exercise, grooming, and veterinary care. Pigeons can live well into their teens and even early 20s when well cared for, so your relationship can be lifelong!


So there you have it: your average city pigeon’s lifespan and life expectancy. While they may sometimes seem annoying flying rats, pigeons are fascinating and complex social creatures. Next time you see one strutting down the sidewalk or cooing on your windowsill, spare a thought for how far they’ve come and how long they might still have left. Though their time on this earth is often harsh and challenging, pigeons still find moments of joy – in flocking together at dawn, raising their young, or fighting over leftover pizza crusts. However brief or prolonged their lives may be, pigeons deserve our respect as fellow inhabitants of this world we share.

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